Knee is the most important joint in our body as it helps in day-to-day activities. Knee Joints consist of Femur (thigh bone) at the lower end, Tibia (shin bone) at the upper end and a Patella (knee cap). The Knee- joints allow the bending and straightening of the knee.
Joints are covered with cartilage which helps in smooth and painless movement as also protects the bone. The remaining surface of the knee is covered by synovial membrane which releases a fluid that reduces friction and lubricates the cartilage. This mechanism normally works well, but disease or injury can create disturbance in normal mechanism, & results in muscle weakness and chronic pain in joints, thus making day to day activities like working difficult.
Symptoms for Knee Replacement Surgery:
- Stiffness in joint which takes few minutes to disappear.
- If a person has constant swelling over the joint.
- When painful symptoms no longer be controlled with non-operative treatment.
- Osteoarthritis is the degenerative disorder in which rate of cartilage generation is less than that of breakdown.
- Rheumatoid arthritis is an inflammation of joints tissue can cause destruction of cartilage.
- Post traumatic arthritis is due to injury to joint cartilage or through damage to the ligaments.
- Avascular necrosis results due to insufficient supply of blood to bones and inner regions of the joint.
Types of Knee Replacement:
- Total Knee Replacement (TKR) – In Total Knee Replacement surgery all cartilage is removed from the knee joint, metal and plastic prosthetic is implanted. A total knee replacement may also involve replacing the surface of the kneecap (patella). Knee replacement surgery is performed to treat advanced or end-stage arthritis or to the patient who has severe pain in the knee joint. It is most suitable for middle-aged and older people who have arthritis in more than one compartment of the knee.
- Partial (half) Knee Replacement (PKR) – PKR is known as unicampartmental arthroplasty (UKA), it is the option for patients with osteoarthritis that is limited to just one part of the knee may be candidates for Partial knee replacement. Partial knee replacement is a type of and minimally invasive surgery. In this procedure only the damaged compartment is replaced with metal and plastic. The healthy cartilage and bone in the rest of the knee is left alone. PKR is a smaller operation, which uses a smaller incision, and involves less bone being removed.
- Knee-cap Replacement – A kneecap replacement involves replacing just the under-surface of the kneecap and its groove (the trochlea) if these are the only parts affected by arthritis. This is also called a patellofemoral replacement or patellofemoral joint arthroplasty.
- Simultaneous Bilateral Knee Replacement – During the procedure both knees are replaced at the same time and it lowers infection rate associated with a single surgical event compared to two. Patient must endure only a single recovery and rehab period (rather than two).
- Revision Knee Replacement – Total Knee Replacements that needs to be revised after 15-20 years (post primary surgery) are also done. The most advanced prosthesis and Computer Assisted Surgery (CAS) is also used for Revision Knee Replacements.
Conditions for Knee Replacement:
TKR is ideal for the person experiences inability to move the joint freely while walking, sitting, bending, standing etc. the person who has chronic pain in knee joint or advanced stage of arthritis.
Total Knee Replacement:
It is a surgical procedure to replace the damaged/diseased/worn knee joint with an artificial material (metal and plastic component). TKR is the permanent solution after other options, results in painless knee joint while walking, sit or lie down.
Procedure of Knee Replacement:
- Step1 – Anesthesia: General anesthesia although sometimes either spinal or an epidural anesthesia and a nerve block has been given to patient.
- Step 2 – An incision of 8 – 12 inch is made in front of damaged knee to expose the knee joint. The damaged bone is removed and cartilage on the end of femur and Tibia from the bone surface. The surrounding muscles and ligaments are preserved. Knee cap is left intact if it is not affected by arthritis.
- Step 3 –The surfaces that hold the metal and plastic components are shaped.
- Step 4 –The artificial material is implanted over both bones. Metal cap is implanted on femur surface and plastic part is implant on tibia surface. These artificial components are implanted with cement or screws. These together form the joint for support and function as a new knee joint.
- Step 5 –Wound is closed with stitches and covered with dressing
The whole procedure takes about 2 hours.
Physiotherapy is required regularly
To know more about our Total Knee Replacement treatment packages, call us at +91-9810085065 or mail us at email@example.com. We will be happy to provide any medical assistance.
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