What is Hypospadias?
Hypospadias is an abnormality of the urethra and penis. The opening of the urethra is does not sometime form on the tip of the penis but is located anywhere on the underside. Such a condition is called Hypospadias.
Hypospadias is a common birth defect and one of the most common congenital abnormalities in males that cause problems with passing urine and also with erections. In most cases, the opening of the urethra is near the head of the penis.
What is urethra?
Urine flows out of the bladder through a tube which passes through the penis- this tube is called the urethra. The opening of the urethra is located at the tip of penis and normally remains partly covered by the foreskin.
Types of Hypospadias
- Distal: The urethral opening is most often found near the head or the penile shaft
- Midshaft: The opening is located further down the shaft of the penis toward the scrotum.
- Penoscrotal: The urethral opening is located on the scrotum.
- Perineal: Scrotum is split and urethra opens between its two halves
- Opening of the urethra at a location other than the tip of the penis.
- Passing urine is different to normal.
- Chordee (Tightening of the tissues on the underside of the penis) which causes bending of the penis.
- Hooded appearance of the penis because only the top half of the penis is covered by foreskin.
Hypospadlas surgery is performed to be done as early as possible between the age of 3-18 months. However it can be done at any age. The idea is to rectify the defect and make the penis normal and straight with the urinary channel at the tip.
Generally there are four stages:
- Straightening the channel or shaft
- Creating the urinary channel
- Recreating or repositioning the uretheral opening
- Reconstructing the foreskin of required
The surgery may take one hour to three hours depending upon the simplicity or complexity of the situation.
First degree is primarily a cosmetic defect and does not affect functioning.
Second or third degree affects normal functioning and needs immediate correction and is mostly successful in one procedure.
Severe hypopadias may require multiple procedures.
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